Cable joints

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Cable joints

Cable joints are components of cable equipment that enable connection, branching or termination of cables. Thanks to them, it is possible to effectively and safely insulate places where such activities are performed. The only thing to remember is to ensure the electrical and mechanical properties of the connection, which parameters cannot be weaker than those of the specific cable.

Cable joints: characteristics

When selecting cable joints, you should pay attention to the type of cable, voltage rating, cross-section, number of conductors and the technology in which the individual elements are made. Optimal matching guarantees high efficiency in the future. The most common types of joints are through-type joints, which connect sections of the same type of cable together. Transition joints, on the other hand, allow you to connect different types of cables, so they are used for more complex tasks. Typically, insulating joints are divided into: via couplers for 4-core polymer insulated cables without connectors and polymer insulated couplers with copper, aluminium or screw connectors. You can also find models of polymer insulated vias for 1-core, 3-core, 5-core and 4-core armoured cables with paper or polymer insulation. Special passage joints are designed for mining cables and wires, traction, signalling and deep well pump cables. Through and branch resin joints are also used. The joints are selected according to the medium voltage, which can be: 3,6/6 kV, 6/10 kV, 8,7/15 kV or 12/20 kV.

The main types of joints are tape, heat shrink, cold shrink and flooded. There are also hybrid models, or special cable connectors that allow the connection or termination of both working and return conductors. Cable terminations guarantee high level of electrical and mechanical strength of cable termination with simultaneous sealing against humidity and possible leakage of silicone.

Cable sockets: description of individual types

Resin joints are joints that use a two-part mould for filling with polyurethane resin and insulating tape. The cured polyurethane resin is made from a two-component mixture of liquid resin and hardener. The purpose of this mixture is to fill the joint effectively and at the same time insulate, seal and secure the joint. Assembly is not complicated, because of the form that the resin joint takes. Resin joints are highly resistant to ultraviolet rays and chemical substances. Their mass guarantees very good electrical insulation.

The band couplers are used to connect or repair a designated cable. The conductors are usually joined using press connectors. The cable insulation is reconstructed using a specially designed self-amalgamating tape, and the shields on the conductor and the self-amalgamating insulation are made of conductive tape. A tape is also used to restore the edge of the shield on the primary insulation of the cable. The electric field within the connector is controlled by tape with a high level of dielectric permeability relativity. Importantly, individual connections can be made without tapering the insulation. The outer sheath is obtained through a glass fiber reinforced tape. Sometimes a heat shrink tube with adhesive is used as part of the outer coating.

The tape-resin joints are used for the connection of three-wire power cables with paper insulation saturated with non-abrasive grease and lead sheath at 8,7/15 kV and 12.20 kV. The insulation is then restored using impregnated paper insulation tape. The screens on conductors and cut insulation are reconstructed with semiconductive tape with silicone impregnated paper. Sheaths and armours of the cables are connected with a braided sleeve.

Cold shrinkable joints are selected for the specific cable, they are flexible and resistant to moisture. Heat shrinkable joints are designed for plastic, shielded and reinforced cables. They guarantee no fire propagation.