Pressure switches and sensors

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Pressure switches and sensors

Pressure switches and sensors (pressure switches) are devices that control the pressure level in closed systems. Used in industrial and domestic installations, they enable their functioning without human supervision, and also inform about danger and alarm conditions.

Pressure switches and sensors in domestic and industrial installations

Pressure switches are very often used in industrial installations to control the flow of water or oil, although they are also used in households. They are one of the important elements related to the safety and efficiency of heat pumps.

How do pressure switches and sensors work?

Switches and pressure sensors are used in hydrophores and water pumps, ventilation, air conditioning and air filtering systems, as well as in household appliances equipped with a hydrostatic - dishwashers and washing machines. In the latter case, the switch measures the water level, not the water pressure.

Types of switches and pressure sensors

The pressure switches and sensors available on the market can be divided according to the way of switching contacts, the mechanics of operation and the number of phases. The way of switching the contacts determines the change of their position by dividing the switches into:

  1. automatic - where the contact closure depends on the setting value. Circuit breakers are typically used in installations where the pressure should remain constant,
  2. with minimum reset - contacts are switched when the pressure drops below the specified level. Switches with a minimum reset are used in instances where a dangerous or emergency situation causes a pressure drop. The installation requires a manual switch to resume operation,
  3. with maximum reset - the contacts are switched when the pressure rises above the maximum value. The switch protects the installation against the dangers resulting from excessive pressure increase, and restarting it requires manual closing.

There are two ways of operating in pressure switches and sensors:

  1. mechanical - less complicated. When the contacts are repositioned, the mechanical pressure switch transmits an electrical impulse causing the circuit to shut off. The device can be additionally equipped with explosion protection, in some situations necessary, due to the applicable regulations,
  2. electric - equipped with an electric pressure sensor and optionally with a display for presenting the current pressure value. The electric switch requires an additional power supply.

The type of electrical installation and the intended use of the switch determine the use of the device:

  1. 1-phase - in a three-wire circuit with a voltage of 230 V,
  2. 3-phase - in a five-wire circuit with a voltage of 400 V,

It is worth mentioning that circuit breakers are often equipped with an electronic system. Such devices then have the so-called DIN input to monitor the operation of the entire system.

Pressure range, degree of protection, maximum working pressure and other important parameters of the pressure switch

Regardless of the manufacturer, pressure switches are characterized by a number of parameters that determine their correct operation in a given system. In Schneider Electric pressure switches catalog cards, for example, you will find, among others. such information as:

  1. compliance with standards and certifications,
  2. determination of the acceptable dust zone,
  3. connection for fluids and electrical ( screw connection and inputs with cable gland),
  4. rated operating characteristics (current, voltage etc.),
  5. number of main break contacts,
  6. degree of protection IP
  7. operating temperature range,
  8. working pressure range ,
  9. maximum working pressure .

The ranges of parameter values ​​depend of course on the manufacturer and the specific model of the switch or pressure sensor.