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Modules and memory cards

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Modules and memory cards

Modules and memory cards include a wide range of control and measurement devices used in automation, as well as intermediary, switching and connection elements. Their task is to manage and supervise the operation of the system, as well as to monitor it in a way that requires as little human intervention as possible.

Modules and memory cards in automation

All automation devices can be divided into three basic groups:

  • measuring devices (sensors),

  • control devices (drivers, regulators),

  • actuators (motors, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic levers, etc.).

Due to the complexity of the devices, on the one hand, and the development of electronics, which allows for a significant reduction in components while increasing their efficiency, on the other hand, once separate devices have now taken the form of modules that perform specific tasks.

Complex automation devices are more and more often programmable devices. Therefore, they require dedicated software as well as its updating. This is where memory cards used in control devices (e.g. PLCs) come in handy, where their task is usually the transmission of a specific program to many CPUs, as well as updating the system software of processors and communication and signal components.

Control modules

The control modules used in automation are designed to measure a specific physical quantity called the controlled quantity, compare it with the set value and influence the measurement process in such a way that the difference between the set value and the controlled value is as small as possible. This process takes place in a closed system and the measured physical quantity is represented by a specific signal.

The most common offers of manufacturers of these devices are temperature regulators used in heating systems, as well as regulators of humidity, pressure and electrical parameters. Regulators exist as separate devices, but also constitute elements of modules - as an example one can mention a power control module with built-in voltage regulator.

Control modules

While in the case of regulation, the measurement and comparison of the output signal with the input signal are used, in control systems the relationship between the input signal and the output signal is known. Therefore, there is no feedback, the system is open, and the input quantities affect the output according to the regularity specified for the given system.

Control in automation systems is carried out by means of various devices and their units, depending on what the control object is. And it can be single devices such as pumps, drives, turbines, dampers, machines or robots, but also entire systems - power plants, energy networks, production lines, pumping stations, refineries and others.

Regardless of what the control object is and how big the system is, in a specific control system there can be modules that perform specific tasks. The most commonly used are popular devices such as time relays, modules for remote lighting control, dimmers, roller shutter controllers, bell and alarm signal controllers and heating modules, but also phase loss and asymmetry relays or relays with built-in ejector for disassembly.

Electronic modules

A large group of modules are electronic modules used in programmable devices in automation and information technology: Arduino modules for building various electronic systems, DDS generators, communication modules (including remote and for communication with the card via the bus), sensors, dials, PWM controllers, modules with relays, programmers, as well as LCD displays and keypad and button modules.