Isolators and earthing switches

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Insulators & Earthing Devices

Insulators and earthing switches are basic overhead line equipment. It is important to know the general characteristics of these components in order to be able to match them up with the right ones later on. These components ensure that the flow of current in the conductors is not impaired. The general characteristics allow you to understand the principles of operation of the indicated elements.

Insulators and earthing switches: characteristics of insulators

Insulators and earthing devices are equipment that has a significant impact on the performance and safety of conductors. Insulators, also called dielectrics, have no free charge carriers, i.e. electrons and ions, to move freely in them. This is due to the fact that the atomic nucleus and shell electrons interact quite strongly. Therefore, insulators can be solids, liquids as well as gases. The aggregate state of an insulator such as a solid can indicate that it is made of plastic, plastic, rubber, glass, paper or wood. As an extremely poor conductor of electricity, insulators are distinguished by the absence of free charge carriers over a wide temperature range. Therefore, insulators are widely used as protective materials against electric shock.

There can be distinguished hanging line insulators, which are a type of insulators used in power lines. They are designed for mechanical work only on tension. In this group we distinguish porcelain insulators and also made of silicone rubber. The latter are currently more often chosen, due to the fact that their weight is lower. They show considerable resistance to mechanical damage. Customers can choose among long rod insulators and hanging chain type insulators. The second group includes composite insulators for shielding applications in outdoor or indoor AC equipment with rated voltage from 1 kV to 800 kV and frequency up to 100 Hz or in DC equipment with rated voltage above 1,5 kV. They usually serve as shields for current transformers and power transformers, circuit breakers, feed-throughs and surge arresters or other electrical equipment. Composite insulators are characterized by: having very good mechanical properties, flexibility, relatively low weight compared to the ceramic casings and also impressive electrical parameters. The third group is station insulators, which are used in overhead or indoor substations for the rigid attachment of rails or elements of equipment. Then we talk about supporting insulators. On the other hand, for leading a live conductor through the wall of the building or other cover, the culvert insulators are chosen.

Insulators and earthing switches: Characteristics of earthing switches

Portable earthing switches provide protection during live work. They are elements of the protective equipment of a transformer station, which can be used for a number of applications. The basic division distinguishes between single-phase and three-phase earthing switches. The number of possible options and choices already in the area of a specific model of portable earthing switch is considerable, so you can easily select products tailored to a specific use. The products offered by reliable manufacturers are in compliance with the applicable standards in the area of live work of earthing equipment. Moreover, when customers want to select portable earthing switches for non-standard applications, they can opt to place a personalized order. The purpose of portable earthing devices is to protect workplaces on overhauled sections of electric power installations by earthing them. Temporary installation of earthing switch equalizes potentials and guarantees for disconnected or isolated parts of insulation the controlled flow of short-circuit current for some time and inhibits the rise of voltage in earthed circuit. This protects users from the consequences of accidentally putting the installation under voltage.