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Files are tools designed for filing, i.e. removing a small layer of material from a workpiece surface. They are used for chamfering, deburring, roughing, smoothing, sharpening tools (saw blades, circular and chain saws), removing weld and seam points, and machining wooden parts. They are used in many industries, mainly in locksmith, machining, foundry, car body painting and carpentry.

File Construction

Files consist of a working part and a handle. The working part, made of tool steel or hard alloys, has densely cut blades. These are made by milling or by kneading with a cutter. The cuts have different shapes that determine the type of file. They may be inclined to one side, spaced diagonally or wavy from the file axis, as well as semicircular. There are four, basic types of cut: single row, unidirectional and multi-row, bi-directional and single row, multi-directional and multi-row. These have been modified and now the number of cut types is much greater, depending on the purpose of the file. A separate group of teeth consists of round teeth used in car body restoration files and rasp teeth used in rasp files. The surface density of the cuts is determined by their graduation. This is measured along the file axis and expressed in mm. The pitch is the number of teeth per 1 cm length. The relief scale is usually 10% larger than the relief scale of the main cut. In this way, the crossing lines of the teeth are diagonal to the axis of the file, which protects the workpiece from scratches and increases the smoothness of the workpiece surface. The graduation is the basis for file classification and enables a correct choice of files. File handles are made of wood or plastic. Plastic handles can be either single-component or dual-component. They are available in ergonomic designs with soft elastomer coated surfaces. Such files make work less tiring for the hand and reduce the risk of hand injury. Separate file groups include needle files, diamond needle files, precision files, body files, sharpening files and wood rasps.

Types of files

There are many different types of files. The basic classification of these tools is based on the size of the file pitch. A distinction is made between 6 different types of files, numbered 0 to 5: 0 - coarse, 1 - coarse, 2 - medium, 3 - coarse, 4 - double, 5 - silk. As far as the shape of their cross-section is concerned, we distinguish the following files: flat, square, triangular, round, semicircular, knife, oval, lenticular and sword files. In terms of the purpose of the file, a distinction is made between files for metal (locksmith's or workshop files), for hard metal alloys and carbide (diamond needle files) and for wood (rasps), precision files (e.g. needle files), 2-flute riffler files with various cut shapes, 2-flute riffler files, sharpening files, etc. Another criterion is the size and longitudinal form of these tools, according to which we have standard files and needle files (small in size) and riffler files with 2 blades of different profiles.

Main technical characteristics of files

The technical parameters that characterize files are: length of the working part, width of the working part, thickness of the working part, pitch, type (number), type of cut, shape of the cross-section and total weight.

Applications for files

These tools are used for filing materials such as alloy steel, non-hardened steel, stainless steel, cast iron, aluminium, brass, bronze, precious metals, carbide, wood and hard plastics, very hard rubber, laminates, technical ceramics, etc. Manufactured by Bahco, Gedore, Hazet, Stanley, Pferd and others.