Control and measuring apparatus
Control and measuring equipment
Measuring and control equipment is one of the most important elements of an electrical installation. It is through the individual pieces of this equipment that the operation of the system can be properly optimized, and energy saving processes implemented. The control and measurement equipment includes: electricity meters, voltmeters, ammeters, voltage and current control relays, as well as multifunction meters.
Measuring and control equipment: characteristics of individual devices
Control and metering equipment includes a number of functional devices, positively influencing the operation of the entire system. The basic devices in this range are electricity meters. They are used to measure electrical energy, both active and reactive in single and three-phase AC circuits.
In addition to basic measurements, they also perform measurements of current, voltage, power and frequency. They can be connected directly to the maximum operating current or via current transformers. Modernly designed meters have the option of unlimited memory for measurement values, partial values and total electricity measurement. When using electricity meters, one can expect accurate measurements of energy consumption along with precise determination of quality parameters. Therefore, these types of meters are usually used in households.
Other devices, which are part of the control and measurement equipment are voltmeters and ammeters allowing for accurate measurements of both voltage and current. Primarily, they are used in industrial plants, due to the speed of obtaining information. Voltmeters and ammeters come in analog and digital versions. Analog versions are designed to read alternating voltages and currents. Digital versions additionally have an overload indicator.
We can also distinguish working time counters. They are necessary for counting the working hours of electrical devices to ensure periodic servicing.
The next devices from the group of control and measurement apparatus are measurement switches. They allow you to choose the measured quantity in three-phase circuits in the case of using one device such as an ammeter or voltmeter.
The control - measuring equipment also includes multi-function meters, which are designed to measure the electrical values for low-voltage networks. This type of meter is characterized by measuring electrical values for low-voltage networks. By using advanced measuring solutions, you can expect accurate results. Such devices are easy to operate and program, which is another advantage. In addition to multifunction meters, this group also includes network parameter analyzers and pulse concentrators. They indicate the so-called real effective values: currents, phase and phase-to-phase voltages, frequency, active, reactive and apparent power.
Another group are the control relays, which allow the control of the quality parameters of electricity, which include: voltage value, phase sequence, asymmetry and decay of supply voltages. Moreover, using control relays it is possible to control the current value. This is possible thanks to the built-in changeover output relay.
Measuring and control equipment: other components
It is also possible to distinguish between other elements that make up the control and measurement apparatus. For example, indicators and recorders are designed for recording and indicating the values of physical parameters such as temperature. These instruments guarantee the achievement of verified metrological and functional parameters. We can also point out humidity and temperature transmitters, whose wide range allows for high accuracy and parameter stability. In most models programming and calibration is simplified to the maximum. It is enough to use a single button, jumpers and pay attention to the light emitting diode. In addition, there are also sensors, which are used to convert a physical quantity that is important at a given moment into an electrical quantity that is easier to measure. There are: sensors of mechanical quantities, temperature sensors, magnetic and electric field sensors, optical sensors, acoustic and ultrasonic sensors and electrochemical sensors.
Conformity assessment of individual measuring instruments is included in the requirements of MID Directive, i.e. the Measuring Instruments Directive established on March 31, 2004 by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The Directive covers ten categories of measuring instruments, which include: water meters, gas meters and volume conversion devices, active electricity meters, heat meters, systems for continuous and dynamic measurement of quantities of liquids other than water, automatic weighing instruments, taximeters, material measures of length and volume, dimensional measuring instruments and exhaust gas analysers. The Directives concern the phase before a measuring instrument is placed on the market and put into use.
Virtually all industrial, heating, water supply, gas, fuel, chemical and food installations are equipped with elements of measuring and control equipment. The elements that are included in particular installations depend on the type of installation and the medium that is inside it. AKPiA elements should always be purchased from reputable distributors. You should always pay attention to high quality, because each of these devices must do its job well. A long period of trouble-free operation is important. Only then can you expect that any installation will work properly. Of course, you should always check the parameters of the individual devices in order to match them to the designated working environment.