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128GB SDXC Kingston U3 V30 170 / 90MB / s
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128GB SDXC Kingston U3 V30 170 / 90MB / s

€19.30 +VAT
CZK 473.66
  • Adapter (reduction) included: no
  • Number of pieces per package: 1
  • Memory card capacity: 128 GB
  • Exact writing speed: 90 MB / s
  • Weight of one package: 0.014
  • Dimension xyz unit package: 11.5x0.1x10
  • Depth of unit package: 10
  • Height of unit package: 0.1
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Automation is a field without which the technological development of the last few decades would not have been possible. Its birth can be traced back to the distant past, since man has always had a tendency to make monotonous and uninteresting tasks easier, but the beginning of classical automation is generally considered to be before the war (around 1935). Modern automation is associated with the development of computers.

Automation - a field ubiquitous in economies around the world

Apart from computer science and cellular communications, it is difficult to name a field other than automation that encompasses so many diverse application areas and touches the daily activities performed by millions of people both on and off the job. Automation is ubiquitous, and even greater and faster growth is almost a certainty.

Automation - application areas

Automation solutions have influenced the development of every sector of the economy. Over time, specific areas have crystallised where certain solutions have become very important and developed, while others are not so important. Currently, due to the area of application, the most frequently distinguished are:

  • industrial automation,

  • building automation,

  • automation in biotechnology, medicine and agriculture,

  • automation in the field of transport, e.g. in railways and aviation,

  • automation in military systems, e.g. remote control, missile guidance.

Industrial automation - control, measuring, controlling and executive devices

Process automation means production with limited human involvement, which is possible to a large extent thanks to the development of automation and the use of systems and devices that improve or even complete the tasks related to production. Among the most common industrial automatic devices we can distinguish:

  • machines and assembly equipment, systems and equipment designed for material handling, presses, robots, etc,

  • control and measurement equipment (sensors, meters, transducers, recorders, indicators, vision systems),

  • control equipment (industrial computers, PLC controllers, regulators),

  • executive devices (motors, drives, pumps, throttles),

  • controllers software and software designed for control and visualization of production processes,

  • wired and wireless communication systems.

Industrial automation covers various branches of manufacturing and is used in metallurgy (steel mills), mining (mines, oil rigs), chemistry and petrochemistry (refineries). It has a large share in production lines, where it is an area strongly associated with robotics, mechatronics, and logistics. Automation devices and systems are also widely used in the so-called utility networks, i.e. networks related to water distribution and treatment and wastewater treatment, gas, electricity and telecommunications networks.

Building automation

The last two decades have seen rapid development in the field of building automation. Although the origins of BMS date back to the 1970s, when American industrialists decided to automate the production of crops, it was only the significant reduction in the cost of manufacturing electronic equipment, its ubiquity and miniaturization that made building automation widely used today.

Optimized plant cultivation evolved over time into office solutions (automatic control of lighting, air conditioning and heating) to enter homes and apartments in the 1980s and 1990s. Initially, the idea of using automation in homes was dictated by the need to ensure the broadly understood safety of home users. At that time, modern systems based on digital control were developed and implemented. Technologies using bus topology proved to be the most technically optimal and economical. This is how the then popular EIB (European Installation Bus) came into being. In the late 1990s and at the beginning of the new millennium, home automation systems of the late 1990s and the beginning of the new millennium include nowadays commonly known and used conveniences such as control of roller blinds and gates or household appliances. Burglar alarms, fire alarms, flood protection systems, etc. have also been developed.

Today's building automation systems already include such elements as:

  • control of external roller shutters - roller shutter automation is usually integrated with the alarm system, while allowing the creation of any configuration (also remotely, via smartphone),

  • automatic opening and closing of gates - also often integrated with the alarm system,

  • control of external lighting - realized automatically with the use of motion sensors, allowing to create illuminations used, among others, to simulate the presence of household members during their absence,

  • alarms and detection systems - warning and detection systems signalling unwanted events (burglary, leakage of gas installation, life-threatening level of black carbon in the apartment etc.).

Today, no one is surprised by such improvements, which are the standard of an intelligent building. For a few years now, automation has been heading in the direction of economical management of electric and thermal energy resources, as well as far-reaching conveniences - functions such as remote watering of a hamster left at home during the owners' holidays or dosing cat food are becoming more and more popular.

Automation systems and devices

The general division of apparatus used in automation into control, monitoring and actuating devices does not fully reflect their diversity. Automation combines electrical engineering, computer science, telecommunications and electronics, mechatronics and even bionics, and therefore uses both electrical and electromechanical, electronic and mechanical (including pneumatic and hydraulic) devices, as well as IT systems based on specific communication protocols and networks.